Monday, March 14, 2011

Lumba-Lumba, Ikan Cerdas Yang Mampu Komunikasi Dengan Manusia


www.AstroDigi.com


Gambar diambil dari: marques.silvaclan.net, webtvwire.com

VIVAnews.com | Jum'at, 18 Feb 2011 | Klik! Bak sepasang sahabat baru yang saling berbagi, sejumlah ilmuwan berhasil berkomunikasi dua arah dengan lumba-lumba meski hanya memakai bahasa konvensional.

Seperti diketahui, lumba-lumba masih menjadi makhluk hidup paling cemerlang kedua setelah manusia di dunia. Ia juga memiliki fitur otak yang kaya dan kecerdasan tinggi.

Memang, hewan mamalia pintar ini mudah kita temui di pusat satwa air, misalnya di Sea World. Di salah satu area pertunjukan, biasanya mereka berkomunikasi dengan para pawang di penangkaran. Sekelompok lumba-lumba akan menghibur para pengunjung dan kemudian sang pawang memberi ikan untuk sebagai hadiahnya.

www.AstroDigi.com


Namun, kali ini ceritanya agak berbeda. Sejumlah ahli biologi perilaku baru saja berhasil membangun komunikasi dua arah dengan lumba-lumba liar di alam bebas pada studi pertamanya.

Dialah Dr Denise Herzing dan beberapa koleganya yang melakukan studi di Wild Dolphin Project Florida, Amerika Serikat. Mereka telah membentuk bahasa primitif dengan menggunakan suara, simbol, dan alat peraga.

"Sebelumnya sudah banyak penelitian seputar komunikasi antara manusia dan lumba-lumba, terutama di penangkaran. Mereka menggunakan ikan sebagai hadiah," kata Herzing pada Wired, Jumat 18 Februari 2011. "Tapi, iming-iming ikan di sini (Wild Dolphin Project) jarang digubris oleh lumba-lumba."

Eksperimen yang dilakukan melibatkan dua lumba-lumba dan dua ahli biologi. Para peneliti dimodali alat peraga seperti bola dan selendang untuk membantu lumba-lumba berkomunikasi.

Ketika lumba-lumba menekan tombol tertentu dengan hidungnya, maka peneliti melemparkan alat peraga yang sesuai ke dalam air. Demikian seterusnya. Hingga 3 bulan "kursus", peneliti bisa bermain dengan lumba-lumba hingga 40 sesi permainan, di mana satu sesi berdurasi setengah jam.

Dalam penelitian ini, Herzing menemukan bahwa anak lumba-lumba pria kurang tertarik berinteraksi dengan manusia. Sementara anak lumba-lumba perempuan terlihat sangat menikmati permainan.

"Ini memang waktunya anak lumba-lumba perempuan memiliki waktu bermain, karena nanti mereka akan menjadi seekor induk yang sibuk," jelas Herzing.

Dari 40 sesi, dia mengatakan, sesi bermain yang paling berhasil adalah ketika sejumlah ilmuwan berenang perlahan-lahan bersama lumba-lumba lalu saling kontak mata dan menirukan gerakan.

Untuk diketahui, studi ini telah diterbitkan dalam jurnal Acta Astronautica.

www.AstroDigi.com (Nino Guevara Ruwano)

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